Stress may also be imposed on a material without the application of net forces, for example by changes in temperature. Significant stress may exist even when deformation is negligible or non- existent ( a common assumption when modeling the flow of water). Plasticity in reinforced concrete by wai fah chen free download. Stress may exist in the absence of external forces; such built- in stress is important in prestressed concrete , for example tempered glass.
Structural steel shapes, sizes, chemical composition, mechanical properties such as strengths, storage practices, etc. , are regulated by standards in most industrialized continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.